HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills)
Q.1. How was the taxation policy responsible for the French
Ans. (i) The French were divided into three estates—First, Second and Third
(ii) First and Second estates which formed 10 per cent of the total population
were clergy and nobles. They enjoyed all privileges.
(iii) Rest of the 90 percent population of the third estate paid all kinds of
direct or indirect taxes, member of Third estate believe that no group in
society should be privileged by birth.
Q.2. What were the causes for the empty treasury of France under
Louis XVI? Assess any three causes.
Ans. (i) When Louis XVI became king the treasury of France was empty as
most of the French kings were involved in wars which emptied their treasury.
(ii) Louis, XVI and wife Mari Antoinette were also extragrant and spent a lot
of money of treasury for herself only.
(iii) France fought a lot of war while supporting American colonies in their
war of independence against G. Britain. This also added to the cause for the
Q.3. ‘While the National Assembly’ was busy at Versailles drafting
constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil. State the
statement whether this is true or false.
Ans. ● It is true as when National Assembly was busy in drafting
constitution rest of France was in turmoil.
Due to bad harvest in winter, prices of bread rose to that level that
common people could not afford to buy.
People started hoarding supplies, therefore women who were standing in
long queues in bakery, crowds of angry women, stormed into the shops and
looted the bread.
Q.4. Explain any five features of the constitution of 1791, framed by
the National Assembly in France.
Ans. The five features of constitution of France are:
(i) Constitutional Monarchy: The constitution made France a
constitutional monarchy. In this system, monarch would remain monarch but
all legislative powers would be transferred to the National Assembly.
(ii) National Assembly: It was indirectly elected. In it, citizens voted for a
group of electors, who in turn chose the assembly. Once chosen, National
Assembly would keep a control on the country.
(iii) Right to Vote: However, not all citizens had the right to vote; only men
above 25 years of age, who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a
labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens. Only active citizens
were entitled to vote.
(iv) Powers of National Assembly: National Assembly had the power to
make laws. It is voted by about 50,000 electors and constituted of 745
members. It could keep control on both king and the ministers.
(v) Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens: The constitution began
with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens. Rights such as the
right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were
established as natural and inalienable rights.
Q.5. Why was Robespierre Guillotined?
What was Guillotine? How was it used?
Ans. Robespierre introduced Reign of Terror when he followed the policy of
severe control and punishment in France.
(i) Guillotine was a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a
person is beheaded. It was named after Dr. Guillotine, who invented it.
(ii) Robespierre was convicted by the court in July 1794, arrested and on the
next day sent to the guillotine and killed in the same manner he punished
Q.6. “One of the most revolutionary social reforms of the Jacobin
regime was the abolition of slavery in the French Colonies. Justify
Ans. ● The Jacobin club was formed by Maximilian Robespierre:
Slave trade was already existing in France from 17th century.
French merchants also sailed to the African coast to buy slaves from their
Its members were from less prosperous sections of society. A large number
of members of the Jacobin club decided to wear long striped trousers to look
apart and also wore red caps to symbolize liberty.
When Jacobins came to power, Monarchy was abolished and National
Assembly was formed.
They passed a law in 1794 to free all the slaves in the French colonies.