Chapter:1.RELATION

Exercise:1A

Question:1

Findthedomaina

Solution:

dom(R)={-1,1,-2,2}andrange(R)={1,4}

Question:2

LetR={(a,a

Solution:

range(R)={827}

Question:3

LetR={(a,a

Solution:

(i)R={(2,8),(3,27),(5,125),(7,343)}

(ii)dom(R)={2,3,5,7}

(iii)range(R)={8,27,125,343}

Question:4

LetR=(x,y):

Solution:

{3,2,1}

Question:5

LetR={(a,b):a

Solution:

dom(R)={3,6,9}andrange(R)={3,2,1}

Question:6

LetR={(a,b):

Solution:

dom(R)={-2,-1,0,1,2}andrange(R)={3,2,1,0}

Question:7

Let

Question:8

LetR={(a,b):

Solution:

dom(R)={1,2,3}andrange(R)={6,7,8}

Question:9

LetSbetheset

## new experimet

Page 1

EXERCISE: 1
A. MULTIPLE CHOICE TYPE

(Choose the best option out of the four alternatives a, b, c, and d)

Question 1:

The Chromatin material is formed forms of

(a) DNA only
(b) DNA and histones
(c) Histones only
(d) Nucleotides

Solution 1:

(b) DNA and Histones

Question 2:

The term “chromosomes” literally means

(a) Inherited bodies
(c) Coloured bodies

Solution 2:

(c) Coloured bodies

Questions 1:

1. Name the following:
a) The repeating components of each DNA strand lengthwise.
b) The complex consisting of DNA strand and a core of histones.
c) The type of bond which joins the complementary nitrogenous bases.
d) The three components of a nucleotide.

Solution 1:

(a) Nucleotides.
(b) Nucleosome.
(c) Hydrogen Bond.
(d) Phosphate, Sugar and Nitrogenous base.

Class X

Chapter 1 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure Of Chromosomes Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

Page 2

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

Question 1:

What is the difference between chromatin fibre and chromosome?

Solution 1:

Chromatin fibre is unfolded, uncondensed, extended DNA. It is only visible when cell under
goes division whereas chromosomes are condensed DNA and they are visible when the cell
is divided.

Question 2:

Solutions:

(G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T).

Question 2:

Correct the following statements if there is any mistake.

a) The four nitrogenous bases in the DNA are Guanine, Thiamine, Adrenaline and Cytosine.
b) Genes are specific sequences of bases on a chromosome.
c) A nucleotide is composed of a sulphate, a sugar (pentose) and a nitrogenous base.
d) Nucleosomes are groups of cysteine molecules surrounded by DNA strands.
e) If there are 46 chromosomes in a cell there will be 23 chromatin fibres inside the nucleus

during interphase.

Solution 2:

(a) The four nitrogenous bases in the DNA ladder are Guanine, Thymine, Adenine and

Cytosine.

(b) Genes are specific sequences of nucleotides on a chromosome.
(c) A nucleotide is composed of a phosphate, sugar (pentose) and a nitrogenous base.
(d) Nucleosomes are groups of histone molecules surrounded by DNA strands.
(e) If there are 46 chromosomes in a cell there will be 46 chromatin fibres inside the nucleus

during interphase.

Question 1:

What is a nucleosome?

Page 3

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

Solution 1:

Nucleosome is basic structural unit of DNA. Each strand of DNA winds around a core of eight
histone molecules. This core can be imagined like a football, around which a long rope is
wound with one or two loops. Each such complex structure is called a nucleosome. A single
human chromosome may have about a million nucleosomes.

Question 2

:

What are genes?

Solution 2:

Gene is a structural and functional unit of heredity and variations. Genes are specific sequences
of nucleotides on a chromosome that encode particular proteins which express in the form of
some particular feature of the body. In other words, gene is the DNA segment of the
chromosome and it controls the expression of characteristics.

E. STRUCTURED / APPLICATION / SKILL TYPE:

Question 1:

Given below is a schematic diagram of a portion of DNA.

(a) How many strands are shown in the pic?
(b) How many nucleotides have been shown in each strand?
(c) Name the parts numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively.
(d) Name the DNA unit constituted by the parts 1, 2, 3 collectively.

Solution 1:

(a) 2
(b) 2 on each strand
(c) 1- Phosphate, 2- Sugar, 3- Nitrogen Base, 4- Hydrogen Bond, 5 – Base
(d) Nucleotide

Page 4

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

Question 2:

The three sketch (A, B and C) are intended to represent the replication of DNA. What should
be their correct sequence starting with the first and ending with the last? ……

Solution 2:

B, C and A.

EXERCISE: 2
MULTIPLE CHOICE TYPE:
(Choose the best option out of the four alternatives a, b, c and d)

Question 1:

The number of chromosomes in a certain type of cell division is halved. This kind of cell
division occurs in.
(a) Only testis
(b) Only ovary
(c) Both ovary and testis
(d) All body cells

Solution 1:

(c) Both ovary and testis

Question 2:

In which one of the following options the two stages of mitosis have been given in correct
sequence?

(a) Prophase, anaphase
(b) Metaphase, telophase
(c) Anaphase, telophase
(d) Telophase, anaphase

Solution 2:

(c) Anaphase, telophase

Page 5

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

Question 3:

Synthesis phase in the cell cycle is called so for the synthesis of more of.

(a) RNA
(b) RNA and proteins
(c) DNA
(d) Glucose

Solution 3:

(c) DNA

Question 1:

Imagine one cell (A) has undergone one mitotic division and another cell (B) has completed
its meiotic division. How many cells would the two produce?

Solution 1:

Cell A: 2
Cell B: 4

Question 2:

Match the events given in column A with the phase in mitotic cell division in column B

Column ‘A’

Column ‘B’

a) Chromosomes get arranged in a

horizontal plane at the equator.

Prophase

b) Daughter chromosomes move to

the opposite poles of a spindle.

Anaphase

c) Chromosomes become visible as

Metaphase

d) Chromosomes lose their

become transformed into a
chromatin network.

Telophase

Solution 2:

(a) Metaphase
(b) Telophase
(c) Prophase
(d) Anaphase

Page 6

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

Question 3:
Fill in the blanks:

a) Mitosis occurs in our ______ cells
b) Mitosis produces two daughter cells whereas meiosis produces ______ daughter cells.
c) Meiosis occurs only in __________ cells.
d) Humans have 46 chromosomes: Their sperms and eggs will have ______ chromosomes each.
e) During the pairing of chromosomes in meiosis, the ________ chromosomes come to lie side

by side.

f) The _______ (s) are surrounded by radiating rays called aster.

Solution 3:

(a) Somatic (body)
(b) Four
(c) Reproductive
(d) 23 and 23
(e) Homologous
(f) centriole

Question 1:

State the difference between:

a) Chromosome and chromatid:
b) Centrosome and centromere:
c) Aster and spindle fibres:
d) Haploid and diploid:

Solution 1:

(a) A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single

piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide
sequences whereas a chromatid is one of the two copies of DNA making up a duplicated
chromosome, which are joined at their centromeres, for the process of cell division (mitosis
or meiosis).

(b) The centrosome is an area in the cell where microtubules are produced. Within an animal

cell centrosome, there is a pair of small organelles called the centrioles. During animal cell
division, the centrosome divides and the centrioles replicate (make new copies) whereas each
chromosome in its condensed form consists of two chromatids joined at some point along
the length. This point of attachment is called centromere.

(c) An aster is a cellular structure shaped like a star, formed around each Centrosome during

mitosis in an animal cell whereas spindle fibers are aggregates of microtubules that move

Page 7

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

chromosomes during cell division.

(d) A haploid cell is a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes. Gametes are haploid

cells that are produced by meiosis whereas a diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of
chromosomes. One set of chromosomes is donated from each parent.

Question 2:

“First meiotic division is the reduction division” what does the word ‘reduction’ refer to in this
statement?

Solution 2:

In this statement, reduction means that the number of chromosomes are reduced to half i.e. out
of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans, only single set of chromosomes are passed on to the
sex cells.

Question 3:

“Gametes must be produced by meiosis for sexual reproduction”. Why is it so?

Solution 3:

Gametes must be produced by meiosis for sexual reproduction because the numbers of
chromosomes are reduced to half during meiosis and then the normal diploid numbers of
chromosomes are regained during the process of fertilization.

Question 4:

Mention whether the following statements are (T) Or (F). Give reason in support of your

(a) As you grow from childhood to adulthood, your skin cells divide only to replace such cells

that are lost from the surface.

(b) The unfertilized human egg has half the number of chromosomes of the body cells.
(c) Nuclear membrane in mitotically dividing cells remains intact up to the metaphase and

disappears only in the telophase.

(d) Mitotic cell division can be a mode of reproduction.
(e) Crossing over between chromatids can occur only between homologous chromosomes.

Solution 4:

(a) False – Surface skin cells are continuously lost and replaced by the underlying cells.
(b) True – All types of human cells, have 46 chromosomes. The only type of cell which does

not have 46 chromosomes are the sex cells, which have only half of the number, so they
have 23 chromosomes. The egg cell is a sex cell (found in female). So it must have 23
chromosomes.

Page 8

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

(c) False – Nuclear membrane disappears in Prophase itself, however it reappears during

Telophase.

(d) True – Mitotic cell division can be a mode of asexual reproduction in unicellular

organisms like amoeba or yeast cell which divides into two daughter cells.

(e) True – While the maternal and paternal chromosomes are separating, the chromatid

material gets exchanged between the two members of a homologous pair resulting in
genetic recombination.

D. STRUCTURED / APPLICATION/ SKILL TYPE:

Question 1:

Draw a labelled diagram to show the metaphase stage of mitosis in an animal cell having ‘6’
chromosomes.

Solution 1:

Question 2:

The diagram below represents a stage during cell division. Study the same and then answer
the question that follow:

a) Name the parts labelled 1, 2, and 3.
b) Identify the above stage and give a reason to support your answer.
c) Mention where in the body this type of cell division occurs.
d) Name the stage prior to this stage and draw a diagram to represent the same.

Page 9

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

Solution 2:

(a) 1 – Centrosome

2 – Spindle fibres
3 – Chromatids

(b) The stage described in the diagram is the late anaphase of mitosis in an animal cell. The

stage can be identified by the presence of separated chromatids which are found at the two
poles of the cell. The appearance of the furrow in the cell membrane classifies the stage as
the late anaphase.

(c) The division is mitotic division and this kind of cell division occurs in all the cells of the

body except for the reproductive cells.

(d) The stage before anaphase is metaphase.

Question 3:

The diagram given below represents a certain phenomenon which occurs during meiosis.
Name and explain the phenomenon by using the terms – homologous chromosomes,
chromatids, crossing over.

Solution 3:

The exchange of chromatids between homologous chromosomes is called crossing-over. This
is the process by which the two chromosomes of a homologous pair exchange equal segments
with each other.

Crossing over occurs in the first division of meiosis. At that stage each chromosome has
replicated into two strands called sister chromatids. The two homologous chromosomes of a pair
synapse, or come together. While the chromosomes are synapsed, breaks occur at corresponding
points in two of the non-sister chromatids, i.e., in one chromatid of each chromosome.

Page 10

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

Since the chromosomes are homologous, breaks at corresponding points mean that the segments
that are broken off contain corresponding genes, i.e., alleles. The broken sections are then
exchanged between the chromosomes to form complete new units, and each new recombined
chromosome of the pair can go to a different daughter sex cell. It results in recombination of
genes found on the same chromosome, called linked genes that would otherwise always be
transmitted together.

Question 4:

Given below is a diagram representing a stage during mitotic cell division in an animal cell
examine it carefully and answer the questions which follow.

a) Identify the stage. Give one reason in support of your answer.
b) Name the cell organelle that forms the ‘aster’
c) Name the parts labelled 1, 2 and 3.
d) Name the stage that follows the one shown above, how is that stage identified?
e) Mention two differences between mitosis and meiosis with regards to:

(i) The number of daughter cells produced.
The chromosome number in the daughter cells.

Solution 4:

(a) Late prophase. Because the nuclear membrane and nucleolus have disappeared.
(b) Centrioles
(c) 1 – Centromere

2 – Chromatids.
3 – Spindle fibre.

(d) Metaphase. The centromeres of chromosomes are drawn to the equator by equal pull

of two chromosomal spindle fibres that connects each centromere to the opposite poles,
forming a metaphasic plate.

(e)

Mitosis

Meiosis

(i) Two daughter cells are produced.

(i) Four daughter cells are produced.

(ii) It is equational division i.e. the
number of chromosome in the daughter
cells or parent cells remains the same.

(ii) It is reductional division i.e. the
number of chromosomes is reduced to
half in the daughter cells.

Page 11

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

Question 5:

Given below are three diagrammatic sketches (A, B and C) of one and the same
particular phase during mitotic type of cell division.

(a) Identify the phase
(b) What is the diploid number of chromosomes shown in them?
(c) Identify whether these are animal cells or plant cells?
(d) Which of these is/are shown in correct direction?

(i) Only A
(ii) Only B
(iii) Only A and C
(iv) All the three

Solution 5:

(a) Metaphase.
(b) 4
(c) A – Animal

B – Animal
C – Plant

(iv)All the three

Question 6:

Shown below are four stages (A, B, C, D) (not in sequence) of a certain kind of cell
division.

Page 12

Class X

Chapter 2 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

(a) Is it a plant cell or an animal cell? Give two reasons ___
(b) Is it undergoing mitosis or meiosis?
(c) What should be the correct sequence of these four stages among themselves?
(d) Name the stage that should precede the earliest of these stages
(e) Draw the stage names above inside the blank space provided.

Solution 6:

(a) This is an animal cell because:

i) The outline is circular (in plants it would be angular {rectangular or polygonal}) and
cell wall is absent.
ii) Centrosomes or centrioles are present. (These are found only in animal cells)

(b) Mitosis
(c) B, C, D, A.
(d) Interphase

(e)

EXERCISE: 1
A. MULTIPLE CHOICE TYPE

(Choose the best option out of the four alternatives a, b, c, and d)

Question 1:

The Chromatin material is formed forms of

(a) DNA only
(b) DNA and histones
(c) Histones only
(d) Nucleotides

Solution 1:

(b) DNA and Histones

Question 2:

The term “chromosomes” literally means

(a) Inherited bodies
(c) Coloured bodies

Solution 2:

(c) Coloured bodies

Questions 1:

1. Name the following:
a) The repeating components of each DNA strand lengthwise.
b) The complex consisting of DNA strand and a core of histones.
c) The type of bond which joins the complementary nitrogenous bases.
d) The three components of a nucleotide.

Solution 1:

(a) Nucleotides.
(b) Nucleosome.
(c) Hydrogen Bond.
(d) Phosphate, Sugar and Nitrogenous base.

Class X

Chapter 1 – Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure Of Chromosomes Biology

_____________________________________________________________________________

## Sudip experiment

Chapter 1. Rational and Irrational Numbers

Selina ICSE Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 1 Rational and Irrational Numbers

Exercise 1(A)

Solution 1:

Solution 2:

Solution 3:

## new experiment 2

Data Handling

The word statistics is used for two different meanings.
In the singular sense, it is used as a science or a subject which deals with the collection,
classification, tabulation, representation and interpretation of the data.
In the plural sense, it is sometimes used for the numerical facts collected in the form of
numbers.
If we have collected information about the heights of class 6 children from ten different
schools of Delhi, then this information in the form of numbers is called statistics.
1. Data : Each number, collected for giving a required information, is called the data.

2. Bar Graph (Column Graph) : Bar graph is the simplest form of presenting a data. It
consists of bars (usually vertical), all of same widths. The heights of these bars are
drawn according to the number they represent.

3. Pie Graph : When the given data is represented by the sectors of a circle, the
resulting diagram (graph) obtained is called a pie-graph or a pie-chart.

EXERCISE 33 (A)

Question 1.

Marks scored by 30 students of class VI are as given below :
38, 46, 33, 45, 63, 53, 40, 85, 52, 75, 60, 73, 62, 22, 69, 43, 45, 33, 47, 41, 29, 43, 37,
49, 83, 44, 55, 22, 35 and 45. State:

(i) the highest marks scored.
(ii) the lowest marks scored.
(iii) the range of marks.

Solution:

(i) Highest marks scored = 85 .
(ii) Lowest marks scored = 22
(iii) Range of marks = 85

– 22 = 63

Question 2.

For the following raw data, form a discrete frequency distribution :
30,32,32, 28,34,34,32,30,30,32,32,34,30,32,32. 28,32,30, 28,30,32,32,30,28 and 30.

Solution:

Question 3.

Define :
(i) data
(ii) frequency of an observation.

Solution:

(i) Data : The word data means information in the form of numerical figures.
(ii) Frequency of an observation : The number of times a particular observation
occurs is called its frequency.

Question 4.

Rearrange the following raw data in descending order :
5.3, 5.2, 5.1, 5.7, 5.6, 6.0, 5.5, 5.9, 5.8, 6.1, 5.5, 5.8, 5.7, 5.9 and 5.4. Then write the :
(i) highest value
(ii) lowest value
(iii) range of values

Solution:

Writing these numbers in descending order we get:
6.1, 6.0, 5.9, 5.9, 5.8, 5.8, 5.7, 5.7, 5.6, 5.5, 5.5, 5.4, 5.3, 5.2, 5.1
(i) Highest value = 6.1
(ii) Lowest value = 5.1
(iii) Range of values = Highest value

– lowest value = 6.1 -5.1 = 1.0

Question 5.

Represent the following data in the form of a frequency distribution :
52, 56, 72, 68, 52, 68, 52, 68, 52, 60, 56, 72, 56, 60, 64, 56, 48, 48, 64 and 64.

Solution:

Question 6.

In a study of number of accidents per day, the observations for 30 days were
obtained as follows :

Solution:

The required frequency table will be as shown below :

Question 7.

The following data represents the w

eekly wages (in ₹) of 15 workers in a factory :

900, 850, 800, 850, 800, 750, 950, 900, 950, 800, 750, 900, 750, 800 and 850.
Prepare a frequency distribution table. Now find,
(i) how many workers are getting less than ₹850 per week?
(ii) how many workers

are getting more than ₹800 per week?

Solution:

(i)

Workers getting less than ₹850 per week

No. of workers getting ₹750 = 3 workers
No. of workers getting ₹800 = 4 works
∴ Workers getting less than ₹ 850 = 4 + 3 = 7 workers
(ii)

Workers are getting more than ₹800 per week

No. of workers getting ₹850 = 3
No. of workers getting ₹900 = 3
No. of workers getting ₹950 = 2
∴Workers getting more than ₹800 = 3 + 3 + 2 = 8 workers

Question 8.

Using the data, given below, construct a frequency distribution table : 9, 17, 12,
20, 9, 18, 25, 17, 19, 9, 12, 9, 12, 18, 17, 19, 20, 25, 9 and 12. Now answer the
following :

(i) How many numbers are less than 19?
(ii) How many numbers are more than 20?
(iii) Which of the numbers, given above, is occuring most frequently?

Solution:

The required frequency table will be as shown below :

(i) There are 14 numbers are less than 19.
(ii) There are 2 numbers more than 20.
(iii) 9 is occuring most frequently i.e. 5 times.

Using the following data, construct a frequency distribution table : 46, 44, 42, 54,
52, 60, 50, 58, 56, 62, 50, 56, 54, 58 and 48.

(i) What is the range of the numbers?
(ii) How many numbers are greater than 50?
(iii) How many numbers are between 40 and 50?

Solution:

(i) Range of numbers = Highest number

– Lowest number = 62 – 42 = 20

(ii) 9 numbers are greater than 50
(iii) 6 numbers are between 40 and 50 Ans.

EXERCISE 33 (B)

Question 1.

The sale of vehicles, in a particular city, during the first six months of the year
2016 is shown below :

vehicles sold
Draw a pictograph to represent the above data.

Question 2.

Solution:

(i) Cars sold by dealer A = 6 x 50 = 300
Cars sold by dealer D = 4 x 5 = 200 ,
∴ A sold more cars than dealer D by = 300 – 200 = 100
∴A has sold 100 more cars than dealer D.
(ii) No. of cars = 23
Scale = 50 cars
∴Total no. of cars = 23 x 50 = 1150 cars Ans.

Question 3.

The following pictograph shows the number of watches manufactured by a
factory, in a particular weeks.

Find
(i) on which day were the least number of watches manufactured ?
(ii) total number of watches manufactured in the whole week ?

Solution:

(i) On Friday least no. of watches manufactured by = 100 x 5 = 500 watches
(ii) Total no. of watches manufactured in the whole week = 100 x 42.5 = 4250 watches

Question 4.

The number or animals in five villages are as follows :

Prepare a pictograph of these animals using one symbol to represent 20 animals.

Question 5.

The following pictograph shows different subject books which are kept in a
school library.

Taking symbol of one book = 50 books, find :
(i) how many History books are there in the library ?
(ii) how many Science books are there in the library ?
(iii) which books are maximum in number ?

(i) There are 50 x 4 = 200 History books in the library.
(ii) There are 50 x 5.5 = 275 Science books in the library.
(iii) English books are maximum in number = 500 x 9 = 450 books.

EXERCISE 33 (C)

Question 1.

The following table gives the number of students in class VI in a school during

Represent the above data by a bar graph.

Solution:

Question 2.

The attendance of a particular class for the six days of a week are as given below

Draw a suitable graph.

Solution:

Question 3.

The total number of students present in class VI B, for the six days in a week
were as given below. Draw a suitable bar graph.

Question 4.

The following table shows the population of a particular city at different years :

Represent the above information with the help of a suitable bar graph.

Solution:

In a survey of 300 families of a colony, the number of children in each family was
recorded and the data has been represented by the bar graph, given below :

(i) How many families have 2 children each ?
(ii) How many families have no child ?
(iii) What percentage of families have 4 children ?

Solution:

(i) 60 families have 2 children each.
(ii) Zero

(iii) The percentage of families having 4 children =

x 100 = 20%

Question 6.

Use the data, given in the following table, to draw’ a bar graph

Out of A, B, C, D, E and F
(i) Which has the maximum value.
(ii) Which is greater A + D or B + E.

Solution:

(i) D has the maximum value of 350
(ii) A + D = 250 + 350 = 600
B + E = 300 + 275 = 575
Hence A + D is greater.

Question 7.

The bar graph drawn below shows the number of tickets sold during a fair by 6
students A, B, C, D, E and F.

Using the Bar graph, answer the following questions :
(i) Who sold the least number of tickets?
(ii) Who sold the maximum number of tickets ?
(iii) How many tickets were sold by A, B and C taken together ?
(iv) How many tickets were sold by D, E and F taken together ?
(v) What is the average number of tickets sold per student ?

Solution:

Question 8.

The following bar graph shows the number of children, in various classes, in a
school in Delhi.

Using the given bar graph, find :
(i) the number of children in each class.
(ii) the total number of children from Class 6 to Class 8.
(iii) how many more children there are in Class 5 compared to Class 6 ?
(iv) the total number of children from Class 1 to Class 8.
(v) the average number of children in a class.

Solution:

(i) In, Class 1 = 100, Class 2 = 90, Class 3 = 100, Class 4 = 80,
Class 5 = 120, Class 6 = 90, Class 7 = 70, Class 8 = 50
(ii) Class 6 = 90, Class 7 = 70, Class 8 = 50, Total number = 210
(iii) Number of student in class 5 = 120, Number of student in class 6 = 90
More children is class 5 = (120

– 90) = 30

(iv) Total number of children class 1 to 8 = 100 + 90+ 100+ 80 + 120 +90 + 70 + 50 =
700

Question 9.

The column graph, given above , shows the number of patients, examined by Dr.
V.K. Bansal, on different days of a particular week.

Use the graph to answer the following:
(i) On which day were the maximum number of patients examined ?
(ii) On which day were the least number of patients examined ?
(iii) On which days were equal number or patients examined ?
(iv) What is the total number of patients examined in the week ?

Solution:

(i) Tuesday were the maximum number of patients examined.
(ii) Friday were the least number of patients examined.
(iii) Sunday and Thursday were equal number of patient examined.
(iv) Total number of patients examined in the week .
= 50 + 40 + 70 + 60 + 50 + 30 = 300

Question 10.

A student spends his pocket money on various items, as given below :
Books : Rs. 380, Postage : Rs. 30, Cosmetics : Rs. 240, Stationary : Rs. 220 and
Entertainment : Rs. 120.

Draw a bar graph to represent his expenses.

Solution:

Amount spent on
Books = Rs. 380
Postage = Rs. 30
Cosmetics = Rs. 240
Stationary = Rs. 220
Entertainment = Rs. 120

## new experiment

HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills)

Q.1. How was the taxation policy responsible for the French
Revolution?

Ans. (i) The French were divided into three estates—First, Second and Third
estates respectively.

(ii) First and Second estates which formed 10 per cent of the total population
were clergy and nobles. They enjoyed all privileges.

(iii) Rest of the 90 percent population of the third estate paid all kinds of
direct or indirect taxes, member of Third estate believe that no group in
society should be privileged by birth.

Q.2. What were the causes for the empty treasury of France under
Louis XVI? Assess any three causes.

Ans. (i) When Louis XVI became king the treasury of France was empty as
most of the French kings were involved in wars which emptied their treasury.

(ii) Louis, XVI and wife Mari Antoinette were also extragrant and spent a lot
of money of treasury for herself only.

(iii) France fought a lot of war while supporting American colonies in their
war of independence against G. Britain. This also added to the cause for the
empty treasury.

Q.3. ‘While the National Assembly’ was busy at Versailles drafting
constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil. State the
statement whether this is true or false.

Explain.

Ans. ● It is true as when National Assembly was busy in drafting
constitution rest of France was in turmoil.

Due to bad harvest in winter, prices of bread rose to that level that

common people could not afford to buy.

People started hoarding supplies, therefore women who were standing in

long queues in bakery, crowds of angry women, stormed into the shops and

Q.4. Explain any five features of the constitution of 1791, framed by
the National Assembly in France.

Ans. The five features of constitution of France are:

(i) Constitutional Monarchy: The constitution made France a
constitutional monarchy. In this system, monarch would remain monarch but
all legislative powers would be transferred to the National Assembly.

(ii) National Assembly: It was indirectly elected. In it, citizens voted for a
group of electors, who in turn chose the assembly. Once chosen, National
Assembly would keep a control on the country.

(iii) Right to Vote: However, not all citizens had the right to vote; only men
above 25 years of age, who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a
labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens. Only active citizens
were entitled to vote.

(iv) Powers of National Assembly: National Assembly had the power to
make laws. It is voted by about 50,000 electors and constituted of 745
members. It could keep control on both king and the ministers.

(v) Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens: The constitution began
with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens. Rights such as the
right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were
established as natural and inalienable rights.

Q.5. Why was Robespierre Guillotined?

OR

What was Guillotine? How was it used?

Ans. Robespierre introduced Reign of Terror when he followed the policy of
severe control and punishment in France.

(i) Guillotine was a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a
person is beheaded. It was named after Dr. Guillotine, who invented it.

(ii) Robespierre was convicted by the court in July 1794, arrested and on the
next day sent to the guillotine and killed in the same manner he punished
guilty people.

Q.6. “One of the most revolutionary social reforms of the Jacobin
regime was the abolition of slavery in the French Colonies. Justify
the statement.

Ans. ● The Jacobin club was formed by Maximilian Robespierre:

French merchants also sailed to the African coast to buy slaves from their

local chieftains.

Its members were from less prosperous sections of society. A large number

of members of the Jacobin club decided to wear long striped trousers to look
apart and also wore red caps to symbolize liberty.

When Jacobins came to power, Monarchy was abolished and National

Assembly was formed.

They passed a law in 1794 to free all the slaves in the French colonies.